Eyewitnesses and eyewitness accounts

               Die Weltwoche: UN report on the massacre covered with

               The Swiss newspaper is trying to publish a secret UN Report
               which caused the horrible NATO planes bombarding

               Strong detonations and flashes of the air raids upon the
               Bosnian Serbs almost sank the reason for the first big NATO
               military action into oblivion: it was the shell which killed
               37 people ,on August 20, in a small green market in Sarajevo.

               Explanation was given the next day by the UNPROFOR command
               headed by the lieutenant general Rupert Smith, of which
               investigation "out of any reasonable suspect" showed that the
               fatal shell was fired from the Bosnian Serbs' position.

               Unlike the explosion at the nearby Markale place when 68
               citizens of Sarajevo were killed - and it was never found who
               caused it - practically nobody asked the question how did the
               Bosnian Serbs happened to be almost instantly accused. The
               general Smith's report sent to the Headquarters of the United
               Nations was written on one page. Contrary to this, the report
               of the United Nations from 1994, was grounded on the special
               investigations carried out by eleven different artillery
               experts at the very spot and was printed on 46 pages.(The
               United Nations proclaimed either paper secret). In Smith's
               report it was stated that the shell of August 28, was
               supposed to fly low as it was not registered by the U.N.

               artillery radars (assembled by the Americans), designed to
               record high path missiles. This conclusion was supported by
               the fact that the UN observers did not register the sound of
               high path missile. And finally, the analysis of the shallow
               crater caused by the shell showed that the it was fired from
               the south. In the report of the UN it was written that the
               nearest artillery position towards that direction was located
               in the outskirts of Lukavica that meant more than three
               kilometers south west of the market.


               Yet, at least four experts - one Russian, one Canadian and
               two Americans - expressed their serious suspicions in the
               general Smith's conclusion "which was out of any reasonable
               suspect" and announced the possibility that the shell was
               fired by the forces of Moslem government and not by the
               Serbs. On September 2, the representative of the UN,
               lieutenant colonel Chris Vernon gave his opinion on that
               case: "Different critical reports on our conclusions reached
               the Headquarters of the UN in New York, among which there was
               a report of an officer stationed here in Sarajevo and two
               from the United States". Lieutenant colonel Vernon also
               stated that the United Nations stuck at the result of their

               The Russian critic is colonel Andrey Demurenko, artillery
               officer who commands with a small Russian detachment of the
               UN peace-keeping forces in Sarajevo. In the interview which
               he gave to the journalist of ITAR-TASS, the colonel Demurenko
               claimed on August 30, that it was practically impossible to
               hit so narrow limited target - not even ten meters wide
               street -from the distance of 3.3 kilometers, " that was the
               nearest distance of the Serbian artillery positions". The
               probability of such a hit was " one versus million".

               As he added, the fact that the UN observers who were in
               charge of artillery weapons control did not hear the
               characteristic shell whizzing before the detonation, brought
               to the assumption that the fatal missile "was not fired from
               a gun but from some other weapon".

               In the TV coverage broadcasted on September 2, the colonel
               Demurenko showed a copy of the UN report and said: "This
               report falsifies the events". He pointed on the maps and
               diagrams at the inconsistencies and contradictions or at
               least at the things which he thought were inconsistent and
               contradictory: "For me, it is completely unacceptable to
               agree with the arguments and strange conclusions contained in
               the final report in which the missile came from the Serbian
               side". This made a high official of the United Nations, who
               wanted to be anonymous, to say in his talk with the
               journalist of AP that UNPROFOR Command thought of undertaking
               disciplinary measures against the colonel Demurenko.


               A Canadian expert who stayed in Bosnia for long time, told me
               by telephone that according to his opinion the UN report was
               "extremely questionable". He was suspicious about "the
               illogic concerning the fuse" of the missile which was taken
               out of the crater on the green market. Unlike the fuse of the
               missiles launched on August 23, this one which hit the green
               market " was not launched at all from the motor tube", that
               meant that the missile was fired from the roof or detonated
               in some other way. The Canadian added that he and his
               Canadian collegues officers who participated in the
               operations in Bosnia were convinced that the Moslem
               government threw on the markets in Sarajevo not only the
               motor shell of February 5, 1994 but also the one of August
               28, 1995."

               The American critic of the UN report is a clerk in the US
               government who also wanted to be anonymous. He said that "
               there are some other unsolved issues which arise suspision
               about the validity of premature UN statement".

               He observes that " from the Serbs' distance and position it
               is impossible to see the green market"- that meant if it was
               them at all, in that case they performed "random firing" .
               Besides, a missile from that distance would have a high path
               "and this means that the missile could not fall from the big
               hight". In addition, as it was proved, the crater was very
               shallow, whilst the shell which flies high penetrates deep
               into the ground before it explodes.

               The American expert claimed that the material evidences
               published by the UN brought to the conclusion that "the shell
               flew very low that would mean the range of several hundreds
               of meters was in question - accordingly, it was fired from
               the territory controlled by (the Moslem) government" - or
               "that the shell reproduced in a bomb was thrown among the
               people from the nearby roof".

               PREPARED SCENARIO

               Another American critic, military man, similarly observed the
               illogic in the UN report. He told me in an interview that at
               least three out of five missiles which were fired on August
               28, in the morning, came from the same position on the
               Serbian side. "But, the fourth one which killed people on the
               market place came from the other side". After questioning,
               the UN Command in Sarajevo expressed its readiness to give
               its statement on all the suspicions and accusations. It was
               strange that the UN Command agreed upon several essential
               things with the critics: namely, that the fatal shell flew
               low, secondly, that it would be "the hit of one versus
               million" if launched from the Serbian side and thirdly, that
               it was random firing.

               However, why should Moslem government as a sceptic should ask
               bomb and kill its own population or, if it was excluded,
               purposly provoke the Serbian firing, that regularly happened
               in the last three years, according to the UN reports from
               Sarajevo? It is the fact that a week time prior to the
               tragedy on the market, the armed forces of the Moslem
               government performed heavy artillery attacks on the Serbian
               positions around Gorazde and Vogosce, north of Sarajevo and
               thus, provoked the revenge of the Serbian artillery. The
               Moslem leadership in both cases requested for NATO air
               attacks but the general Smith refused to ask for it.

               Then, on August 27, the threat of "activating NATO air
               forces" followed. In other words, the air attacks had been
               already schedulled in detail . There was only a cause needed
               for the planes to take off and really, the State Department
               representative Nick Burns had asked for the air attacks even
               before general Smith's report reached New York. The first
               wave of American combatant planes fired the first bombs at
               the targets only 39 hours after the explosion.

               GUILTY IN ADVANCE

               General Ratko Mladic, Serbian Commander, instantly denied the
               responsibility for the explosion on the green market, nothing
               different could be expected. In the telephone talks he had
               the same day, Mladic agreed with the general Smith, Commander
               of the UN forces in Sarajevo, that a joint commission or a
               team of neutral experts should investigate the explosion. In
               the letter of September 4, to the general Bernard Janvier,
               French Commander of UNPROFOR in Zagreb, it was written: " Why
               did you refuse to engage a joint commission as I agreed upon
               with the general Smith? Why didn't you inform the public
               about it?"

               The next day, a high official of the UN with four year
               experience in the conflicts in Yugoslavia, declared about the
               massacre on the green market:

               "It is not so important. Three years and four months of the
               Serbian bombing of Sarajevo are more important. This is the
               reason for the begining of air attacks."

               Or, as one critic said sarcastically: "The Serbs are
               responsible for so many things that it is not important
               whether they are guilty for this crime as well."

               Now, it is certainly too late to engage a joint or neutral
               commission which could at the very spot clarify the fall of
               the shell. Anyway, it is not late for the UN to make public
               the entire report to enable the artillery experts to
               investigate and discuss the matter in public.

               David Binder